There is plenty of reform experience and guidance available: how to identify & analyse the 29 corruption types in defence, 8 types of reforms that reduce corruption in military forces and defence ministries, possible reform strategies, and 5 international defence sector initiatives on corruption reform. There are many countries examples of defence reform. Click on the menu above.

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The defence sector will always be vulnerable to corruption, due to the risks from high levels of secrecy, complex technical procurements and exploitation of the hierarchical nature of the military. In rich countries the corruption tends to be concentrated in defence procurement, whilst in poorer countries defence corruption tends to be everywhere else: in asset sales, in secret budgets and budget deception, in salary theft, in illicit use of military intelligence, etc.. But over the last ten years, many Defence ministries and militaries have been improving their control of corruption: a combination of greater openness, responding to the challenges of terrorism and public trust, ¬†plus the presence of detailed analyses of each country’s defence corruption vulnerability from Transparency International Defence.


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